Commonalities Between Client-Centered Therapy and How God's Grace Works: Finding a Path to Client-Centered Christian Spiritual Counseling - ADPCA (2023)

Jerome Wilczynski1
Argosy University, Chicago

Citation: Wilczynski, J. (2019).Commonalities Between Client-Centered Therapy and How God’s Grace Works: Finding a Path to Client-Centered Christian Spiritual Counseling.The Person-Centered Journal. 24(1). 5-14

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There are striking similarities between the way Carl Rogers (1957, 1959, 1961) conceived of the counselor-provided conditions in client-centered therapy leading to client change, and how Christian theological writers such as Edward Schillebeeckx (1968/2005, 1979, 1980, 1987, 1991) and spiritual writers like Anthony DeMello (1990) describe the divine–human relationship and how this leads to change for human beings. Given these similarities, the author posits that Christian spiritual counseling should proceed in the same manner as client-centered therapy. Doing so allows the spiritual counseling relationship to mirror the God–human relationship as it empowers personal and spiritual growth for humanity.

Table of Contents

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This article explores the commonalities between how client centered (CC) therapy achieves its purpose of being a constructive therapeutic relationship for client change (Rogers, 1957, 1959, 1961) and how God’s grace works from a Christian theological viewpoint (Schillebeeckx, 1980, 1991). To do this, one must appreciate how a specific understanding of God and God’s way of relating to creation is conceived (Schillebeeckx, 1968/2005, 1979, 1980, 1987, 1991), as well as how spiritual change can be posited (DeMello, 1990). Once this is elucidated, the striking similarities between how change is achieved in CC therapy and how God’s grace works leads to the conclusion that Christian spiritual counseling should be conducted in the same fashion as CC therapy. Doing so allows the Christian spiritual counseling relationship to mirror the relationship between God and human beings.

Pertinent Concepts from Client-Centered Theory and Therapy

In Carl Rogers’ (1959) CC theory, there is a sole drive that propels all life processes; he referred to this as the actualizing tendency. The actualizing tendency is defined as “the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the organism” (Rogers, 1959, p. 196). This finds expression in two main ways within a human being: The individual’s sense of their bodily or organismic experience and the way they view themselves psychologically, referred to as the self-system (Rogers, 1959). “If the self and the total experience of the organism are relatively congruent, then the actualizing tendency remains relatively unified. If self and experience are incongruent, then the general tendency to actualize the organism may work at cross purposes with the … tendency to actualize the self” (Rogers, 1959, pp. 196–197). Rogers (1959) states such incongruences within the person can lead to psychological maladjustment. While incongruences result from denied or distorted experiences, they can also arise from adopting or internalizing the expectations of others that are “at odds” with the experience of an individual. When this happens, maladjustment is said to be caused by internalizing the “conditions of worth” that others hold for a person (Rogers, 1959).

When a client experiencing incongruence (i.e., maladjustment) comes to a CC therapist for help, the counselor provides conditions within the relationship which Rogers (1957) asserts to have a therapeutic effect. These conditions entail the counselor’s being congruent, that is they must be accurately aware of their experience in the relationship with the client (Rogers, 1957). The counselor strives to experience unconditional positive regard for their client; meaning, they seek to accept “each aspect of the client’s experience as being a part of that client … [This] means that there are no conditions of acceptance, no feeling of ‘I like you only if you are thus and so’” (Rogers, 1957, p. 98). And, the counselor seeks to experience “an accurate, empathic understanding of the client’s awareness of [their] … experience [or internal frame of reference]” (Rogers, 1957, p. 99). This means a therapist strives to “sense the client’s private world as if it were [the therapist’s] own” (Rogers, 1957, p. 99). If the counselor is able to provide these conditions, a “process of constructive personality change will follow” (Rogers, 1957, p. 96). This occurs because the unconditional environment provided by a CC therapist counteracts the conditional aspects of a client’s experience, thereby allowing them to accurately perceive and correct incongruences within the totality of their lived experience (Rogers, 1959).

Edward Schillebeeckx’s View of God and God’s Relation to Creation

Roman Catholic priest and theologian Edward Schillebeeckx’s (1914–2009) conception of God is rooted in human experience. For Christians, Judeo–Christian history is the source material for understanding God. In the history of the Jewish people, moments of liberation have been interpreted as being supported by God. Christians interpret the liberation that comes from the way of life espoused by Jesus of Nazareth as being rooted in God’s desire for people to be freed from all the forces that oppress them (Schillebeeckx, 1991, pp. 8–10, 121–123). It is precisely in this way that we encounter God. Our experience of God is always mediated through historical, worldly events as well as inner human experiences (Schillebeeckx, 1980, pp. 809–817; Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 70).

Precisely because we have no unmediated experience of God, Schillebeeckx states we are forced to acknowledge something about God. Namely, God cannot be apprehended with any specificity, and therefore God is beyond all created reality. Yet, at the same time, we experience God as somehow present within us. This double experience allows Schillebeeckx to state that God transcends all reality and is simultaneously immanent or present within all that exists. In fact, we can only relate to God because of God’s immanent presence within us; the aspects of God’s existence that transcend created reality are beyond our relational grasp (Schillebeeckx, 1979, p. 627; Schillebeeckx, 1991, pp. 57, 74–77). Because our God experience involves interpretations of both our inner experience and historical events (Schillebeeckx, 1980, p. 809, 1991, p. 70), Schillebeeckx (1968/2005) is able to say that God interpenetrates all created reality (pp. 127–129). He therefore concludes that God transcends as well as interpenetrates all creation, while remaining intimately available to us inwardly and through worldly events vis-à-vis faith-based interpretations of experience (Schillebeeckx, 1968/2005, pp. 127–129; Schillebeeckx, 1979, p. 627).

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Schillebeeckx (1991) is aware that defining God from human experience is potentially fraught with problems, for in doing so we are using human characteristics to describe something that is totally other than human; but we simply have no other means for describing God (pp. 57, 74–77). A perfect example of this difficult state of affairs is how human beings may only liberate others from oppression by “doing things” to help them (p. 231); but God works differently. God liberates from within the person by empowering them to actualize their freedom (p. 90). Christians interpret the freedom they experience to effectuate their lives for happiness as coming from God. This inner freedom allows one to be outwardly free to care for others, which is the defining hallmark of the way of life espoused by Jesus of Nazareth. In the New Testament, we see these characteristics of God—willing freedom and liberation—exemplified in the life of Jesus. This is why Christians understand Jesus to be the human revelation of the invisible God (Schillebeeckx, 1991, pp. 7, 31–32, 90, 121–123).

Whereas human beings may fail to choose the good when confronted with a choice between good and evil, we know from the always compassionately lived life of Jesus—where he consistently championed the good and sought to heal every evil afflicting those he encountered—that God only acts for good, never for evil (Schillebeeckx, 1980, pp. 725–730; Schillebeeckx, 1991, pp. 121– 122). Observing this about Jesus, Schillebeeckx says that God has no encumbrances (i.e., possesses absolute freedom) to effectuate the divine nature as unconditional love and pure positivity. In other words, God does not make decisions between good and evil; God freely and absolutely exercises the positivity of the divine nature without any temptation toward evil whatsoever (Schillebeeckx, 1980, p. 727; Schillebeeckx, 1987, pp. 104–105).

Schillebeeckx (1991) also states that we can use observation of the world around us to say something about how God relates to creation. We can assuredly say God respects the freedom of creation, because we notice “in nature there is chance and determinism; in the world of human activity there is the possibility of free choices” (Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 91). If this were not so, “we and our history would be merely a puppet show in which God holds the strings” (Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 91). If God can be said to respect the freedom of creation, what can we say about God’s activity within it?

From an examination of the world around us, we see that God does not directly intervene within the world or our lives (Schillebeeckx, 1979, p. 627). Instead, Schillebeeckx (1991) asserts, “the action of God in world history is … always the divine activation of worldly, historical and human powers and possibilities” (p. 83); this is called God’s grace. Grace empowers the natural processes of life, but it does so without controlling them. In other words, God’s grace operates in worldly and human actions (Schillebeeckx, 1980, pp. 810– 817); it cannot be identified as something separate from naturally occurring phenomena (Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 234). Given this, are we to also conceive of God as being at work in all worldly and human actions and/or decisions?

No. God’s grace only empowers worldly and human actions/decisions which bring forth the good in life (Schillebeeckx, 1980, pp. 791, 808–814); grace does not empower destructive life processes (pp. 726–730). Therefore, we can always count on God’s immanent presence within us to faithfully act in all our choices and actions for the good (p. 808), never in our harmful actions or decisions (Schillebeeckx, 1980, p. 791).

Anthony DeMello’s Insights: How People Change from a Spiritual Perspective

Roman Catholic priest and psychotherapist Anthony DeMello (1931–1987) wrote a very insightful book on spiritual change. In this book, DeMello (1990) advises us to simply observe ourselves (p. 56). Through observation, you begin to understand yourself; you do not need to do anything beyond this (p. 90). DeMello says that when you try to change you run head-on into the problem of your attachments. You want something for yourself and you become “attached” to that desire (pp. 137–140). The more you pursue that desire for change, the more you “rail against” something in your life; and the more you do that, the more power the situation gains over you. DeMello advises that we stop fighting whatever we want to change. Instead, we should simply understand it (DeMello, 1990, p. 147). But how does one do that?

We accomplish this by being aware of what is happening in our lives. When we do not push ourselves to change, but simply pay attention or give awareness to ourselves, change becomes possible (DeMello, 1990, pp. 166–168). There is no technique one can teach for doing this (pp. 35–37), but DeMello does offer some basic assistance: Pay attention to your environment, what you are thinking or feeling. Do not try to change whatever you are thinking or feeling—just notice those things (pp. 45–46). You will begin to gain insights about what is going on, i.e., how you are attached to something and how attachments cause suffering (pp. 46–50). Once you are aware of what is going on in your life, change happens naturally without you attempting to make it happen. The more you try to change, the more arduous and unsuccessful the process will be (DeMello, 1990, pp.166–168).

Bringing Schillebeeckx and DeMello Together on Change Process

The foundation has been laid for us to unite the theological and spiritual with counseling. But before we can do that, we must bring together some of the ideas of Schillebeeckx and DeMello. In particular, we must address why we human beings may experience God’s grace as “challenging” us in the spiritual change process, and why we likely have such experiences.

Schillebeeckx (1991) states that human beings may experience God’s grace as challenging them (p. 90) to live in life-enhancing ways (Schillebeeckx, 1980, p. 791). To understand how this experience comes about within us, we must recall DeMello’s (1990) insights on how spiritual change happens. When we pay attention or are aware of what is going on within us, insights come; we begin to see things for what they are within our lives and we begin to see what causes our suffering (DeMello, 1990, pp. 45–50). Even though such revelatory processes are a product of our inner experience, we can certainly state this “challenging” awareness involves God’s grace if, as Schillebeeckx (1980) contends, the process is life-enhancing (p. 791).

Although Schillebeeckx never explicitly reveals how the inner process of spiritual change happens, his writings seem to affirm DeMello’s (1990) understanding that this happens within a situation of unconditionality (pp. 45–50, 166–168). For example, Schillebeeckx (1991) states God is not invested in our choosing one path over another as we seek to overcome all that hampers our lives (pp. 230– 231); God simply wants us to thrive and flourish (Schillebeeckx, 1987, pp. 104–105). Even though the divine has no pre-determined plan for how that should happen (Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 91), engaging with God in prayer somehow allows us to see the things that need to change in our lives (Schillebeeckx, 1980, p. 817).

This must come about because, as Schillebeeckx (1987) indicates, God’s love for us is unconditional (p. 104). If it is unconditional, the person should not experience God as controlling or directing their inner process. In fact, this is precisely how we saw Schillebeeckx depict the relationship between God and human beings in the preceding paragraph; and, this coheres with Schillebeeckx’s (1980) assertions that God’s grace does not control life processes (pp. 810–817). Even so, Schillebeeckx (1991) does leave the “door open” for God to spontaneously urge humanity toward the good in life, yet always allowing for us to refuse the invitation (pp. 90–91). Thus, we may say that the interactive process between God and human beings happens without divine manipulation (p. 91), for even when God spontaneously prompts us toward the good, we are free to refuse. The divine certainly respects our freedom (Schillebeeckx, 1991, pp. 90– 91).

Therefore, if we bring together Schillebeeckx’s views on God’s way of relating to us and DeMello’s understanding of how we change, the process of spiritual change that is revealed is paradoxical: God not controlling or directing our inner process is exactly what allows us to change! Engaging with God’s unconditional love allows us to become aware of the issues that need changing in our lives. Whether the “challenge” we experience comes from our awareness process as we deliberately engage with God, or whether we interpret the experience as coming from the divine spontaneously makes no difference. For God’s grace can be said to be involved, as Schillebeeckx (1980) states, in all processes that are life-enhancing (p. 791).

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How Does This Apply to Christian Spiritual Counseling?

All of what has been stated above regarding God and God’s relation to creation as well as to change in the spiritual life has striking corollaries with CC theory and therapy. In Rogers’ (1959) theory, the actualizing tendency has only growth-promoting or life-maintaining properties. As Schillebeeckx (1980) asserts, God’s grace is similar. It empowers the good or only what enhances life (pp. 791, 808-815). CC therapists provide conditions in counseling that one can also predicate of God. According to Rogers (1957), a counselor seeks to understand their client’s inner experience or internal frame of reference. Because God is ever-present within us (Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 57), the divine can be said to be “‘more intimate in me than I am … with myself’” (p. 90); as such, we may assert that God understands our inner experience given God’s depth of intimacy within us. Rogers (1957) states counselors strive to have unconditional positive regard for clients. God, as pure positivity (Schillebeeckx, 1980, p. 727) and unconditional love (Schillebeeckx, 1987, pp. 104–105), may certainly be said to possess this attitude toward humanity. And, lastly, CC counselors endeavor to be congruent or aware of their inner reactions to clients in the counseling relationship (Rogers, 1957). God, who possesses absolute freedom, is entirely unencumbered by inner conflicts (Schillebeeckx, 1987, pp. 104–105; Schillebeeckx, 1991, p. 101). This implies that God is perfectly aware of everything that happens within the divine life (i.e., is congruent) as God relates to human beings. Thus, we see that God relates to us in a strikingly similar way to how CC therapists endeavor to relate to their clients, and, both relationships engender similar growth promoting tendencies for humanity.

Given all this, and in keeping with Rogers’ (1957) assertion that personality change will ensue for clients when counselors provide the conditions of CC therapy, it only stands to reason that Christian spiritual counseling—when grounded in a view of God and God’s relationship to humanity similar to the one outlined above—should be conducted in the same manner as CC therapy. This is posited not only because Rogers (1957) asserted that the therapist-provided conditions are responsible for all successful counseling, but also because Christian spiritual counselors should attempt to mirror the divine– human relationship as much as possible in terms of creating a climate whereby unconditionality allows for client change. Just as Rogers (1961) states the climate of CC counseling promotes the client’s right to self-determination (pp. 170–171), so too should spiritual counselors seek to protect their clients’ freedom. This is important because, as DeMello (1990) asserts, the process of spiritual self-discovery and change comes from inner awareness of one’s process (pp. 45-50, 166168), not from the direct guidance of a spiritual counselor. Moreover, Christian spiritual counseling should honor the freedom of the client because, as Schillebeeckx (1991) notes, God respects human freedom (p. 91). All of this supports the conclusion that Christian spiritual counselors should provide the right interpersonal environment within counseling—the same that characterizes CC therapy—which allows for self-discovery and change to occur. If a Christian spiritual counselor and client are endeavoring to work this way, it is only logical to assume that God’s grace will be at work in the inner process of the client, just as the actualizing tendency is at work in the client’s process within CC therapy.


DeMello, A. (1990). Awareness: The perils and opportunities of reality. J. F. Stroud (Ed.). New York, NY: Image Books/Doubleday.

Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. Boston, MA:Houghton Mifflin.

Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context (pp.184–256). New York, NY: McGraw–Hill.

Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21 (2), 95–103.

Schillebeeckx, E. (2005). The eucharist. (N. D. Smith, Trans.).London: Burns & Oates. (Original work published 1968) Schillebeeckx, E. (1991). Church: The human story of God. (J.Bowden, Trans.). New York, NY: Crossroad Publishing.

Schillebeeckx, E. (1987). God among us: The gospel proclaimed. (J.Bowden, Trans.). New York, NY: Crossroad Publishing.

Schillebeeckx, E. (1979). Jesus: An experiment in Christology. (H.Hoskins, Trans.). New York, NY: Seabury Press.

Schillebeeckx, E. (1980). Christ: The experience of Jesus as lord. (J.Bowden, Trans.). New York, NY: Crossroad Publishing.

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1 Dr. Wilczynski is Associate Professor of Counseling/Core Faculty in the Counselor Education and Supervision Department at Argosy University, Chicago. He can be reached via his university email at or his personal email at He earned his Psy.D. in Clinical Psychology from the Illinois School of Professional Psychology, Chicago and M.A. in Theology (Systematic Theology/New Testament) from Catholic Theological Union at Chicago.

Author’s Note: You will notice that I deviate from traditional citation process when I cite books by including page numbers when I am paraphrasing. Providing the page numbers facilitates the reader’s ability to find this information within these voluminous texts. Special thanks to Alex DeMarco who provided invaluable copy/theological editing.

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What are the three characteristics that are associated with client-centered therapy? ›

Therapists who practice Carl Rogers' person centered therapy should exhibit three essential qualities: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding.

What are the main components of client-centered therapy? ›

Client-centered therapy operates according to three basic principles that reflect the attitude of the therapist to the client: The therapist is congruent with the client. The therapist provides the client with unconditional positive regard. The therapist shows an empathetic understanding to the client.

What are the four basic elements of client-centered therapy? ›

  • Genuineness and congruence.
  • Unconditional positive regard.
  • Empathetic understanding.
14 Nov 2022

What is associated with client-centered therapy? ›

Here, too, the relationship is an egalitarian one, based on empathy, positive regard, and acceptance. Client-centered therapy focuses on the person's perception of his or her present circumstances and assists the person in identifying his or her own answers to problems or barriers (Brammer, Shostrom, & Abrego, 1989).

What are the 5 key elements of patient-centered care? ›

Research by the Picker Institute has delineated 8 dimensions of patient-centered care, including: 1) respect for the patient's values, preferences, and expressed needs; 2) information and education; 3) access to care; 4) emotional support to relieve fear and anxiety; 5) involvement of family and friends; 6) continuity ...

What are three factors that all therapies have in common? ›

The most widely studied common factors include the therapeutic alliance, therapist empathy, positive regard, genuineness, and client expectations for the outcome of therapy (i.e., the extent to which clients believe therapy will be helpful in alleviating problems) (Cuijpers, Reijnders, & Huibers, 2019).

What is the primary goal of client-centered therapy? ›

Client-centered therapy focuses on the person's perception of his or her present circumstances and assists the person in identifying his or her own answers to problems or barriers (Brammer, Shostrom, & Abrego, 1989).

What are the main principles of person-centered approach? ›

A person-led approach is where the person is supported to lead their own care and treated as a person first. The focus is on the person and what they can do, not their condition or disability. Support should focus on achieving the person's aspirations and be tailored to their needs and unique circumstances.

What is the most important element in person-centered therapy? ›

One of the most important aspects of the person-centered therapy technique is that the therapist must exhibit unconditional positive regard for the client. In short, this means that they accept and care for the client as they are.

What are the eight 8 core values of a client Centred approach? ›

The eight values in person-centred healthcare are individuality, rights, privacy, choice, independence, dignity, respect, and partnership.

Why client-centered is important? ›

Client-Centered Therapy is centered upon the expansion of self-awareness, the enhancement of self-esteem, and greater self-reliance. Some of the positive outcomes for clients include a greater sense of freedom, spontaneity, and openness.

Why is client-centered practice important? ›

The main goal of a patient-centered care model is to improve individual outcomes—when patients are more involved in their own care, they often recover more quickly and are more satisfied with the care they receive.

What are the 8 principles of patient-centered care? ›

8 Principles of Patient-Centered Care
  • Address patient preferences, needs, and values. ...
  • Ensure full team information and education. ...
  • Provide health information and education. ...
  • Maintain patients' physical comfort. ...
  • Provide emotional support. ...
  • Include family and friends on the Care team. ...
  • Support patients through all care transitions.
23 Nov 2021

What are the 6 C's of person Centred care? ›

What nouns beginning with C do you think might be essentially important in delivery of health and social care? So, the 6Cs are care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment.

What are the 5 core functions and attributes of the Pcmh? ›

A patient-centered medical home (PCMH), as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, is an organizational model of primary care with the following functions and attributes: comprehensive, patient centered, coordinated, accessible, high quality,24 and safe.

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These factors are all proven to contribute to a more effective therapy experience.
The 3 Things That Influence Your Success in Therapy
  • Forming a strong bond with your therapist.
  • Setting clear goals together.
  • Committing to the process.
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What the five common factors are present in all effective treatments? ›

Joel Weinberger and Cristina Rasco listed five common factors in 2007 and reviewed the empirical support for each factor: the therapeutic relationship, expectations of treatment effectiveness, confronting or facing the problem (exposure), mastery or control experiences, and patients' attributions of successful outcome ...

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According to the psychological flexibility model, which underpins ACT, psychological flexibility consists of six primary components: defusion, acceptance, self as context, contact with the present moment, values, and committed action.

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That brings us to the three core values that are critical for developing great relationships: Wisdom, Performance and Love.
The three steps were to:
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  • Develop an ethos to practice your core values to create your culture.
  • Continually improve your core values, ethos and culture.
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What are the three person-centred core values? ›

The Other 3 Conditions in Person Centred Therapy

The first three conditions are empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. These first three conditions are called the core conditions, sometimes referred to as the 'facilitative conditions' or the 'therapist's conditions'.

What three key characteristics of the therapist are crucial in client-centered therapy? ›

Rogers Three Characteristics/Attributes Needed for Client-TherapistRelationship. According to Rogers (1977), three characteristics, or attributes, of thetherapist form the core part of the therapeutic relationship - congruence,unconditional positive regard (UPR) and accurate empathic understanding.

How do you implement a person-centred approach? ›

Implementing person centred practice
  1. smile and introduce ourselves.
  2. wear a name tag that people can see and read.
  3. explain your role to the patient.
  4. ask the patient how they are feeling today - both physically and emotionally.
  5. see the patient as a person who has a life outside hospital.
  6. treat the patient as an equal partner.
5 Oct 2015

Why is it important to promote person-centred care and support? ›

Person-centred care supports people to develop the knowledge, skills and confidence they need to more effectively manage and make informed decisions about their own health and health care. It is coordinated and tailored to the needs of the individual.

What are 2 key elements of person Centred care? ›

The Health Foundation has identified a framework that comprises four principles of person-centred care:
  • affording people dignity, compassion and respect.
  • offering coordinated care, support or treatment.
  • offering personalised care, support or treatment.

What are the two basic assumptions of person centered therapy? ›

1) congruence (genuineness or realness), 2) unconditional positive regard (acceptance and caring), 3) accurate emphatic understanding (an ability to deeply grasp the subjective world of another person.) therapist as the authority who knows best and of the passive client who merely follows the beliefs of the therapist.

What are the attributes of client centered care? ›

It means considering patients' cultural traditions, personal preferences and values, family situations, social circumstances, and lifestyles as used by the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) and Institute for Healthcare Improvement.

How do you promote client-centered care? ›

Engage patients in their care plan

By encouraging questions and demonstrating that you're always open to new ideas, you'll inspire patient-centered care communication and put your patient's family at ease. When you educate them about their condition and treatment choices, you empower them to partner with you.

What are the 3 principles of person Centred care? ›

affording people dignity, compassion and respect. offering coordinated care, support or treatment. offering personalised care, support or treatment. supporting people to recognise and develop their own strengths and abilities to enable them to live an independent and fulfilling life.

What are the three 3 counseling approaches explain them? ›

Perhaps the three main approaches are psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioural. Each of these has a different theory and ideas underpinning it, and the therapists and counsellors using each will approach problems and issues in different ways. These three main approaches each support a number of individual therapies.

What are the three characteristics of effective therapists? ›

In summary, there are many things that positively impact a counselor's effectiveness, while opposite traits are related to incompetent practice. An effective counselor is an active listener, expresses empathy and compassion, and is genuine and transparent.

What are the 7 core values of a person Centred approach? ›

Person-centred values

Examples include: individuality, independence, privacy, partnership, choice, dignity, respect and rights.

What are the 6 C's of person-centred care? ›

What nouns beginning with C do you think might be essentially important in delivery of health and social care? So, the 6Cs are care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment.

What is the most important element of person-centred care? ›

1. Treat people with dignity, compassion, and respect. Patients often lose their independence when they enter care, which puts their dignity at risk. Person-centred care enables you to maintain that dignity by respecting their wishes and treating them with compassion and empathy.

How do you promote patient-centered care? ›

Best practices for taking better care of patients
  1. Show respect. ...
  2. Express gratitude. ...
  3. Enable access to care. ...
  4. Involve patients' family members and friends. ...
  5. Coordinate patient care with other providers. ...
  6. Provide emotional support. ...
  7. Engage patients in their care plan. ...
  8. Address your patients' physical needs.
6 Mar 2020

What are the three core conditions of counseling according to person centered therapy? ›

The Other 3 Conditions in Person Centred Therapy

The first three conditions are empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. These first three conditions are called the core conditions, sometimes referred to as the 'facilitative conditions' or the 'therapist's conditions'.

What are the five counseling approaches? ›

Approaches to psychotherapy fall into five broad categories:
  • Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies. ...
  • Behavior therapy. ...
  • Cognitive therapy. ...
  • Humanistic therapy. ...
  • Integrative or holistic therapy.

What are the 6 aims of counselling? ›

However there are five commonly named goals of counseling.

What are the common factors that are related to all effective therapies? ›

To understand the evidence supporting them as important therapeutic elements, the contextual model of psychotherapy is outlined. Then the evidence, primarily from meta-analyses, is presented for particular common factors, including alliance, empathy, expectations, cultural adaptation, and therapist differences.

What are the most important components of effective therapy? ›

Essential Elements of Effective Therapy
  • 1 | Safety. If one doesn't feel safe in psychotherapy (or in any setting!) ...
  • 2 | Awareness. Once a client feels safe, they are in an optimal state to start drawing their awareness to their in-the-moment actions, thoughts, feelings and body sensations. ...
  • 3 | Contrary Action.
8 Dec 2017

What is the most important element that makes therapy effective? ›

The most important aspect of effective therapy is that the patient and the therapist work together to help the patient reach their goals in therapy. Q. Some therapists consistently produce better outcomes than others, regardless of treatment and patient characteristics.


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Author: Lidia Grady

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Name: Lidia Grady

Birthday: 1992-01-22

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Hobby: Cryptography, Writing, Dowsing, Stand-up comedy, Calligraphy, Web surfing, Ghost hunting

Introduction: My name is Lidia Grady, I am a thankful, fine, glamorous, lucky, lively, pleasant, shiny person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.